﻿ Line results: Moments

# Line results: Moments

### Bend moment, x bend moment, y bend moment, bend moment component, in plane bend moment, out of plane bend moment

Available at mid-segment points and line ends. The magnitude of bend moment, its components in the local x and y-directions, its component in the user-specified local direction theta and its components in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions.

The out-of-plane direction is normal to both the line's axis (at the specified arc length) and the vertical direction. The in-plane direction is normal to both the line's axis and the out-of-plane direction.

If the line's axis is vertical then these directions are ill-defined and therefore no values can be reported.

### Curvature, x curvature, y curvature, curvature component, in plane curvature, out of plane curvature

Available at mid-segment points and line ends. The magnitude of curvature, its components in the local x and y-directions, its component in the user-specified local direction theta and its components in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions.

When pre-bend is modelled, curvature results are reported relative to the pre-bent curvature.

 Note: When using nonlinear bend stiffness, the reported mid-segment curvature depends on whether the bend stiffness is specified to be hysteretic or not. For details see the note regarding curvature results under the nonlinear bend stiffness topic.
 Warning: Curvature results are accurate only if the segment length is sufficiently short. The accuracy may be judged by performing a sensitivity study on segment length in the area of interest.

### Normalised curvature

Available at mid-segment points and line ends. Defined as curvature divided by allowable curvature.

If minimum bend radius (MBR) varies with tension, then that variation is taken into account when calculating normalised curvature.

Available at mid-segment points and line ends. The magnitude of bend radius, its components in the local x and y-directions, its component in the user-specified local direction theta and its components in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, as defined above.

When pre-bend is modelled these results are reported relative to the pre-bent curvature.

 Notes: Bend radius is defined as 1 / curvature. If the curvature is zero, a value of infinity is reported. When using nonlinear bend stiffness, the reported mid-segment curvature (and hence bend radius) depends on whether the bend stiffness is specified to be hysteretic or not. For details see the note regarding curvature results under the nonlinear bend stiffness topic.
 Warning: Bend radius results are accurate only if the segment length is sufficiently short. The accuracy may be judged by performing a sensitivity study on segment length in the area of interest.

### Torque

Available at mid-segment points and line ends only, and only for lines with torsion included. The component of structural moment along the line axis.

### Strain induced torque

Available at mid-segment points only, and only for lines with torsion included. This is the tension / torque coupling contribution to torque, $k_\mathrm{tt}\ \epsilon$.